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Roman Circus House: good news for the NAAFI!

During the National Heritage Open Days 2012, on 8th-9th September, nearly 300 people visited Roman Circus House, off Circular Road North in the old garrison. This building was formerly the Army Education Centre and is now the offices of the Colchester Archaeological Trust (CAT). It is a very interesting building, but CAT didn't know much about its history or the functions of its rooms. Visitors came to the building to look at some archaeological displays and to see part of the site of the Roman circus in its garden and in the adjacent garden. CAT was hoping to give their visitors lots of information but, as it turned out, they learned something important, as well ...
The building was completed in 1937 (there is a date plaque on the front of the building) and it is very well designed and well built, modern for 1937, and fitted with metal Crittall windows throughout. The rooms are nicely finished with fireplaces, picture rails, coving, skirting boards and dados and, upstairs, surviving high-quality hard wood floorboards. Unusually, it has two front doors and a tall chimney in the central position on the facade. The public rooms are large and well-proportioned and lit by large windows, with one room even containing a small stage. The service area to the rear is good, with a single-storey kitchen and service corridor.
One of the Open Days visitors was retired Army Quartermaster Major Vic Freeman. Major Freeman was able to tell Philip Crummy of CAT the original use of Roman Circus House - it was the Le Cateau Barracks NAAFI!
Major Freeman provided CAT with a lot of information about the NAAFI and the garrison. CAT then acquired the ground-plan of the Cavalry Barracks from the National Monuments Record, which includes the plan of the Regimental Institute. Completed in 1935, the building is identical to Roman Circus House. The Regimental Institute housed the NAAFI for those barracks. The rooms are all efficiently labelled on the plan: kitchen, scullery, office, beer store, unit coal store, NAAFI coal store, etc. Roman Circus House has lost some of its original features but, apparently, the Regimental Institute still retains some, ie the bar and its three archways, complete with shutters, and a serving hatch to one canteen. So, in Roman Circus House, the large room on the ground floor was the men's canteen, equipped with the stage and a bar, and the adjacent room was the corporals' canteen. The large room upstairs was the reading room. The first floor of the service wing once formed the manageress's private accommodation. The building next door was the Army cook house and dining hall.
Inspired by the discovery that Roman Circus House was the barracks NAAFI, CAT has been doing some research into the history of the NAAFI.
The NAAFI was formed in 1921 from the Army Canteen Service and, during WW2, also ran ENSA.
From Wiki: '... The Navy, Army and Air Force Institutes (NAAFI) ... is an organisation created by the British government in 1921 to run recreational establishments needed by the British Armed Forces, and to sell goods to servicemen and their families. It runs clubs, bars, shops, supermarkets, launderettes, restaurants, cafés and other facilities on most British military bases and also canteens on board Royal Navy ships. Commissioned officers are not usually supposed to use the NAAFI clubs and bars, since their messes provide these facilities and their entry, except on official business, is considered to be an intrusion into junior ranks' private lives ...
In addition to being the name of the Institute, NAAFI is also used in British service talk as a noun for a type of break, i.e. a "NAAFI break" - which means short break or tea break ...'
The NAAFI was central to the lives of servicemen and servicewomen in the British Armed Forces in peacetime and provided a vital service during WW2. It is still an important feature of Service life today. Roman Circus House, as the barracks NAAFI, would have been a focal building in the Le Cateau Barracks. Later it served another important function, as the Army Education Centre. The building, therefore, stands as a memorial to all the people who passed through its doors during its military lifetime. It stands at an intersection between the archaeology of the Roman circus and the modern history of the Army and its community.


National Heritage Open Days: 8th-9th September 2012

The annual National Heritage Open Days are on the weekend of the 8th-9th September this year, when buildings and sites are open to the public and entrance is free, and there are volunteers at each venue to talk to visitors. So get out there and enjoy the great historic buildings and sites of Colchester!

Colchester Library will be open; go there first to view a map with all the open buildings and sites marked, and there will also be a display of books relating to the buildings in the Local Studies section of the library.

Buildings or sites in Colchester which will be open to the public on one or both days are:
Bourne Mill
Colchester Castle and the Castle Park
the Audley Chapel in the former church in Berechurch Hall Road
Colchester Baptist Church
Colchester Cemetery
Colchester Royal Grammar School
Lexden tumulus
Mercury Theatre
Peake's House
Hollytrees Museum
Holy Trinity church
Quaker Meeting-house
Roman theatre remains
3 West Stockwell Street, the offices of Sparling, Benham and Brough
St Botolph's Church
St Giles' Masonic Centre
St Helen's Chapel
St James the Great Church
St James the Less Church
St John's abbey gatehouse
St John's Orthodox Church
St Leonard at the Hythe church
St Martin's church
Colchester Arts Centre (St Mary-at-the-Walls church)
the Minories house and Folly
Headgate Theatre
*** Roman Circus House and garden (the site of part of the Roman circus), off Circular Road North - information at

There will also be events, including town tours from the Town Hall and a guided walk of the Roman town wall. There will be performances illustrating events from 2,000 years of Colchester's history outside the castle. There will also be two events at firstsite.

Four local composers have created pieces of music inspired by buildings in Colchester, and these will be performed at the buildings on the Heritage Open Days for 'Music in place 2012': '... History and architecture will come alive with a series of musical interludes composed in response to each building. Join four local composers and the acclaimed Britten Sinfonia on a musical journey through some of Colchester's most historic buildings ...'. The four buildings are the Town Hall, St Martin's church, St Botolph's Church, and Colchester Arts Centre (St Mary-at-the-Walls church).

For details on all the open buildings or sites and events, go to…

The buildings are all listed or on the local list; all the sites, except for Colchester Cemetery, are Scheduled Ancient Monuments.
Read more about each building on this web-site, under 'listed and locally listed buildings'.

'On tenterhooks'

art installation at Bourne Mill
'On tenterhooks' is an art installation in Bourne Mill, which will be open to the public 2nd-23rd August 2012 (Thursdays and Sundays, 2-5pm), with a free opening open event on Saturday 4th August, 2-5pm, featuring yarn craft activities for all ages. The installation is a collaboration between two Colchester artists, Clare Sams and Broa Sams. Clare is a textile artist and Broa is a carpenter and sculptor, and the installation is of collaborative mixed media sculptures.
[Thanks to Clare Sams for the 'On tenterhooks' information and for providing the image (below).]
Bourne Mill
Bourne Mill was first recorded c 1240 and, like the other mills on the same stream, it seems to have worked as a corn mill throughout the Middle Ages. St. John's abbey held the mill until the Dissolution, when it passed through a series of owners. It was a corn mill in 1632 and seems to have continued as a corn mill, perhaps with a fulling mill, throughout the 18th century. In the earlier 19th century it was a cloth mill for weaving, fulling, and finishing bays, run by Peter Devall, until 1833. When Devall sold up in 1833, it was the end of the cloth industry in Colchester, after centuries of being the staple industry of the town. The mill seems to have been disused after 1833. However, by 1860 it was in use again as a corn mill. The mill closed in 1935 and was given to the National Trust in 1936. It was converted to a house, but the machinery was restored in 1966 and it was opened to the public as a historic building (information from VCH 9).
The building called 'Bourne Mill' is the surviving part of the water mill. It is a very picturesque listed building overlooking Bourne Pond (the mill pond). (Read more about the building in its entry on this web-site, at
Bourne Mill is owned by the National Trust and is open to the public on Tuesdays and Thursdays, with a programme of events. It is in Bourne Road, Colchester, Essex CO2 8RT.
Cloth industry in Colchester
The installation is a response to part of the long history of Bourne Mill, a water mill powered by a water wheel. A 'fulling mill' was used in the textile manufacturing process and, in Colchester, this textile was bay or bays (or 'bay and say', a fine cloth), and perpetuanas. Tenter frames were also used in the manufacturing process and some of the fields within and around the walled town centre were once full of tenter frames, holding cloth on tenterhooks, eg in what is now Upper Castle Park. Colchester had a long history as a cloth-making town and was famous for its 'bay and say'. Many people, of all ages, would have been employed in cloth-making here, in all its stages, from wool-combing, spinning and weaving, fulling, roughing, etc, to seaming and dyeing.
There were two fullers in Colchester in the 11th century and the cloth trade took off here in the 12th century. It was given a boost in the late 16th century with the arrival of Dutch or Flemish cloth workers, and the town flourished because of it. The industry went into terminal decline in the 18th century and ended in 1833 when Peter Devall, the last baymaker, sold up. The cloth trade was, for centuries, the staple industry of Colchester. The cloth workers were mostly outworkers, ie they worked in their own houses and yards and were paid by the piece, in Colchester itself and in the surrounding villages.
(Celia Fiennes in "1698 Tour: London to Bury St Edmunds": '... Colchester is a Large town in the Compass of Ground ... there is a ... broad streete and near its Length like stalls on purpose to Lay their Bayes when exposed to saile. Great quantetyes are made here and sent in Bales to London that is 44 miles distant. Ye whole town is Employ'd in spinning weaveing, washing drying and dressing their Bayes in wch they seeme very Industrious. The town Looks Like a thriveing place ...'
Daniel Defoe in "A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain" (1724-27): '... [Colchester] may be said chiefly to subsist by the trade of making bays, which is known over most of the trading parts of Europe, by the name of Colchester bays, tho' indeed all the towns round carry on the same trade, namely, Kelvedon, Wittham, Coggshall, Braintree, Bocking, &c. and the whole county, large as it is, may be said to be employ'd, and in part maintain'd, by the spinning of wool for the bay trade of Colchester, and its adjacent towns ...'
The cloth workers were heavily exploited and restricted by their employers and by the Dutch Bay Hall, and at the mercy of fluctuations in trade. In 1725, 'the Poor distressed Bay Weavers in Colchester' sent a petition to the King, complaining about the oppression of their Masters 'the Bay makers that trade to the Dutch bay Hall', for reducing their wages; it was signed by over 120 bay weavers. In January 1725 there were weavers' riots in Colchester. The rioters broke into the town gaol and released a rioter, and the ringleader John Curtin was shot dead after resisting arrest by the constables. At the request of the baymakers, troops were sent to suppress the rioting.
In 1793, Richard Patmore, a baymaker of West Stockwell Street, was indicted for distributing part of Thomas Paine's "The Rights of Man", which was considered subversive.)
Other places in the town with associations with cloth-making are:
* Cannock mill in Old Heath Road (a fulling mill)
* East Mills by East Bridge (once included a fulling mill)
* 77 East Hill (originally a bay and say warehouse, according to Richard Shackle; and, also, the owners of the warehouse lived in the house opposite)
* a building to the rear of Winsley's House, at the far east end of the High Street (originally a bay and say warehouse, according to Richard Shackle)
* 6-7 East Hill (once a woollen cloth factory, according to Shani D’Cruze)
* the castle was used as a wool store for the town's annual wool fair (in 1806)
* the Riverside Hotel (formerly the Castle inn) on North Station Road was, in 1691, owned by Abraham Fromanteel (baymaker) and Samuel Daniell (linen draper)
* 96 High Street was, for generations, the home and business premises of the Shillito family, cardmakers
* 30 East Stockwell Street (Peake's House) may have been the house of a weaver, as it has what looks like a weaver’s window on the first floor
* 35 West Stockwell Street was formerly the Bishop Blaize inn, where the town’s woolcombers met (St Blaize was their patron saint)
* the Dutch congregation met in All Saints’ church until it was disbanded in 1728
* the Red Lion inn, where a meeting of creditors was held on the 3rd May 1756 for the bankruptcy of 'Bay-Maker' Upcher Alefounder
* the Faunus and Firkin wine bar in the High Street was formerly the Bay and Say public house, and originally The Lamb.

Stalls were set up in the High Street to sell cloth, probably in the upper part near the Exchange/Dutch Bay Hall. Abbeygate Street was once 'Clothiers Lane' (on a map of 1748).
Cloth merchants in the town could build up great wealth and power from their exploitation of the labour and poverty of their cloth workers, and they paid for some of the finest buildngs in the town.
* 24 North Hill (now the Marquis of Granby pub.) was a house owned and perhaps built by wealthy clothier Henry Webbe in the early 16th century.
* The Minories art gallery and art school on East Hill was originally a fine house, bought by baymaker Isaac Boggis in 1731. In 1762, his son Thomas Boggis, wealthy baymaker or bay merchant, inherited the house. He modernised it after 1775; the property included a bay and say warehouse adjacent to the house, on its east side (now demolished).
* 83-84 High Street was a house built for baymaker and mayor William Boyes. It was later lived in by Charles Hills, another baymaker, c 1768-1780. In 1781 the property was described as '... large lofty warehouses and chambers over the same, lately used in the manufacture of baize ...'.
* Rebow’s House on the corner of Head Street and Sir Isaac's Walk was built in its present form by Sir Isaac Rebow MP who made his fortune in the cloth trade; his memorial survives in Colchester Arts Centre (formerly St Mary-at-the-Walls church).
* Winsley’s House at the east end of the High Street was the home of wealthy baymaker Arthur Winsley; he founded Winsley’s Almshouses in Old Heath Road and his memorial survives in St James' Church. (Winsley Road in New Town is named after him.)
* Winnock's Almshouses in Military Road were built in 1678 by John Winnock, a wealthy clothier or baymaker. (Winnock Road in New Town is named after him.)
* 2-3 Trinity Street was once the home of Benjamin Smith, a baymaker who went bankrupt.
[Read more about all these buildings in their entries on this web-site.]
The wealthy baymakers also owned lots of small houses in the town, which their weavers were forced to rent from them; and some cloth 'factories' were buildings which weavers were forced to work in by renting space from the baymakers.
There is a gravestone in St Martin's churchyard for Jacob Ringer Bays Maker, and a brass memorial in St James' Church to John Maynard, clothier and alderman. There is a memorial to the Colchester martyrs in St Peter's Church: two of the martyrs, John Spencer and Richard Nichols, were weavers. There is a stained glass Weavers' Memorial Window in the Council Chamber of the Town Hall.
The Dutch Bay Hall, the cloth trading centre in the town, once occupied the upper floor of the Exchange building in the High Street, on the site of the Essex and Suffolk Equitable Insurance Office building.
Other demolished buildings associated with the cloth trade include North Mill and Stokes Mill, and the Weavers' Arms inn at 11 Middleborough, where the weavers used to meet.
[Note: '... Colchester contains about 8,000 inhabitants. The principal manufacture is baize, which is mostly exported to Spain. The trade is in a declining state, owing to the war between France and Spain. About 100 looms are employed in silk manufacture. Weavers earn from 8s. to 9s. a week ; wool combers, 10s. to 12s. ; spinners, from 4d. to 6d. a day. Children 8 or 9 years old earn by spinning 2d, to 3d. a day ; card makers, 2s. a day ; women weavers, from 5s. to 5s. 6d. a week ; agricultural labourers receive during harvest, 1s. 8d. to 2s, a day ; common labourers, 1s. 6d. a day. There are 18 friendly Societies with 20 to 40 members each, who pay 1s. monthly into the box. Sick members receive 8s. to 10s a week, and aged members 6s a week. The parishes in Colchester were formerly incorporated for the purpose of supporting their Poor, but about 50 years ago they were disunited, and now each parish manages its own Poor ...' - from Eden's survey of the poor in 1797, at ]

Local list adopted by Council

The 'draft local list' became official last night and is now 'the local list' after it was adopted by Colchester Borough Council. Buildings on the local list will now be protected through the planning process.

The locally-listed buildings are soon to appear on C-maps which is the system on the Council website where all the planning constraints (conservation areas, listed buildings and the like) are set out. Our own website will be maintained for the foreseeable future. Work continues on it slowly. The latest additions include lists of architects and demolished buildings. Gradually more information will be added to these lists to help reveal the architects who helped shape Victorian and early 20th-century Colchester and to provide records of some of the more interesting buildings that the town has lost.

Letters to owner/occupiers

Letters from the Borough Council were recently sent to the owner/occupiers of buildings on the draft local list telling that their property was included on the list and that the Council would soon be considering the formal adoption of the list. The letters were hand-delivered to all the buildings concerned to make sure they arrived at their destinations. Sometimes circumstances made delivery by this means impossible (eg where the building is unoccuped and has no letterbox or it is a pillbox in a field) so then efforts were made to track down the owner and deliver the letter by some other means.

If you own a building on the draft local list and have not received a letter, please let us know and we can help make sure you get one.

Architects of Colchester

It may look as if nothing much is happening on the website but in fact the descriptions of the buildings on the draft local list are being continually updated and improved.

One of the new recent features has been the addition of a category for architects which you can access in the main menu bar along the top of the each page. Click on the word 'architects' and you will be presented with a list of people who have designed many of the buildings on the draft local list. You will then have two choices for each architect. Click on the word 'biography' to find out about the man himself or click on 'list of buildings' to discover examples of his work.

Work is at an early stage and this is a lengthy job which will take a long time. Most of the biographies are blank at the moment and the lists of buildings are all bound to be incomplete. However, go to J F Goodey to get an idea of the sort of detail we are aiming at.

If you can help provide us with suitable information, please get in touch. We will be delighted to hear from you.

Draft local list nears completion

The consultation period for comments on the draft local list has now finished. The buildings forum will meet once more in April to review the comments which we have received during this period and finalise the draft local list. The website will be updated accordingly and the final draft list will be submitted to the Borough Council who will then decide on the final content of the list and then notify all the owners concerned before its formal adoption.

Thank you again to everybody who has sent as comments and information about Colchester's historic buildings. We will continue to update and improve the content of the website and welcome any new informations or corrections which you would like to send us.

Public consultation

We've had quite a few comments and suggestions for the draft local list. Thank you to all the people who have taken the trouble to send them in. The period of consultation will close on March 19th 2010.

The draft local list is live!

Please look through the list and comment on anything you see there by using the 'contact us' page on the website (on the menu). Let us know if you think we have got something wrong or if there is something you think we should add to our descriptions. You can nominate buildings which you think we have missed and ought to be on the list or you can point out others that we have included that you think should not be there. You have until the end of February to do this at which time the period of consultation will end. The draft local list will then be removed and the forum will meet to review suggestions and amend the list accordingly. A few more buildings will be added to the list by the forum at this stage and the final draft list will be given to the Borough Council. The Council will review the list and then consult with all the property-owners/residents on the final version by letter before formally adopting their final version of the list.
    Note that, although the list is complete, more data (including the completion of the coded justifications) will be added between now and the start of February when the formal consultation period begins. But please comment now if you want to do so.

Why a list and what are the implications?
Karen Syrett, Spatial Policy Manager for Colchester Borough Council, set out the reasons for the list and its implications in her contribution to the launch of the completed draft local list on January 19th. The text of her talk can be read here. Councillor Chris Hall, the Borough Council's Heritage Champion, opened the meeting and spoke about the way Colchester had changed over the years and the value and importance of retaining its key buildings. His text can be read here.
    Compilation of the local list is not just about identifying valuable or significant buildings, but also about trying to preserve what makes Colchester different to everywhere else. For this reason, the contribution a building can make to the townscape as one of a group can be significant and explains why some buildings are included in the draft local list which might otherwise have been omitted.

'Listed' buildings
Some of Colchester's buildings are protected by being listed. All the buildings listed in England and Wales, including the ones in Colchester, can be found on English Heritage's Images of England website (see also Heritage Gateway). The listed buildings have been included on our site so as to show which buildings are already protected. The descriptions which appear in each of the entries were kindly provided by the National Monuments Record at Swindon and are the most up-to-date versions available. The listings were made many years ago and are therefore out of date in places. We have not attempted to update the list yet but there are some additional comments added on a piecemeal basis in square brackets at the end of a some of the entries.
    Buildings which are listed are those which are judged by central government to be of national importance. These include all buildings which predate 1700 and are in a good or restorable condition as well as most buildings which date to between 1700-1840. Some buildings which are later than 1840 have been listed but they must be perfectly intact and of the highest architectural order.

Choosing buildings for the local list
Buildings on the draft local list are those which are suggested to be of local importance rather than national. Buildings have been included on the list if they are not already 'listed' and at least one of the following criteria apply:

  1. The building is earlier than 1840 and is in good or restorable condition.
  2. The building dates to between 1840-1945 and is largely complete plus is of an architectural and/or historic value which rises from 'good' for the oldest buildings to 'very high' for the younger ones in the date range.
  3. The building was built after 1945 and is complete with no inappropriate alterations or extensions plus is of highest architectural or historic value.
  4. The building has group or skyline value.

Various additional factors have been taken into account during the selection process. They are not sufficient in their own right or in combination to justify inclusion in the list but they have been used to tip the balance in marginal cases. They are as follows: historic value, iconic value, contribution to the historic character of the area in which it stands, prominence in the townscape or landscape, quirkiness, rarity in Colchester terms, and sustainability (i.e. the building is realistically capable of reuse).

How to use the draft local list
Select 'buildings in draft local list' from the menu at the top of any page to go to the draft local list gallery. Here you can look at the buildings either street by street or all at once by choosing 'Any' from the top of the drop-down menu of street names. Click on the thumbnail image once if you want to see a bigger version of it.
You can also search the site using the search box in the top right-hand corner of each page. From here, you can also access the advanced search page for more search options.
You can also access the data for many of the buildings using the zoomable map accessible via the menu at the top of each page. Not all the buildings have been plotted on the map but they will be in time.
    When you get into the descriptions of the buildings, you will find at the foot of each of them why that particular building was included in the draft local list. The justifications are expressed as a date (which will point to the first three criteria above) and a series of codes which indicate which additional factors apply. The codes are as follows:

Architectural value

A++ very high
A+ good
T-F timber-framed (ie C18 or earlier)
?T-F ?timber-framed (needs investigation)

Historic value



C++ complete with no inappropriate alterations/extensions
C+ condition: largely complete
C condition: good or restorable


I iconic value
H contribution to the historic character of the area in which it stands
P prominence
Q quirkiness
R local rarity
Su sustainability

'Jaggers' list'
A few years ago, the Borough Council commissioned Mansell Jaggers to undertake a review of the town-centre conservation area. As part of this study, he identified a number of unlisted buildings and he judged that it "would be a good idea to make a 'Local List' of these buildings, with a brief description and photographic record. This would prove useful in considering any future proposals for these buildings, particularly for alterations that might affect their character." Mansell Jaggers' list was taken as the starting point for the current selection. His selections are identified in our list by the words 'Jaggers' list'. Mansell's study was completed in 2007 and can be downloaded from here.

Proposed new conservation area and more buildings for the draft local list
Colchester began seriously to spill out of its walled area in the early Victorian period when terraces of two-up, two-down houses were first built in number on land that had previously been open. These were the houses for the common man and the sorts of buildings that are not often 'listed'. The establishment of the Colchester Garrison in the mid 1850s sped up the process whereby the built-up part of the town gradually crept outwards in a way it had not done so before. These 'extra-mural' developments of circa 1840-60 occurred in Priory Street (especially the north side - demolished many years ago), the Chapel Street/West Street area, Brook Street, and the north end of Albert Street. Once started, this process has never stopped with new streets and buildings being laid out further and further out from the town centre.
    Colchester's high number of Victorian buildings poses a problem of selection as far as the local list is concerned. None of the earliest of these extra-mural developments have fared particularly well over the years. Plastic replacement windows of inappropriate design are common. Roofs have been changed, outside walls rendered and/or painted, most front doors have long since been replaced, and original boundary walls removed. The one feature which has survived the best are the diminutive and visually-attractive porches which characterises these early workers' homes. These were the cheapest versions of the grander porches which adorned the more expensive houses where a deep and effective roof (a canopy) was supported by free-standing flanking columns all designed in a classical style. Preservation as far as possible of some of these early 'porched' Victorian two-up two-down buildings is an objective worth pursuing despite their condition because of their association with early Victorian Colchester and the start of its rapid growth into the town it is today.
    On the other hand, mid and late Victorian houses for the masses (including the middle classes) are better preserved. Fine examples can be found inside the town wall in the Roman Road/Castle Road area as well as outside. To protect some buildings of this key era in Colchester's history, we are suggesting that a new conservation area be established which would cover a sequence of developments laid out street by street throughout the Victorian and Edwardian periods. The limits and extent of this proposed conservation area can be seen here. At the north end, closest to the walled part of the town, is the Chapel Street/West Street/South Street west area which was laid out around 1842 and was in effect Colchester's first extra-mural estate. Moving southwards (broadly) and getting progressively later in date are Alexandra Road (1870s) and Alexandra Terrace (between 1875 and 1895), Cedars Road (formerly Gilberd Road/South Street East (between 1886 and 1905). Beaconsfield Avenue (1890-1894+), Salisbury Avenue (1891-95), Wickham Road (1899-1902+), Errington Road (1901-5+), Hamilton Road (1902-3+), and Constantine Road (1905-6+).
    All the buildings within the proposed new conservation area are being nominated for the local list. So too are all the buildings within the New Town conservation area (see here for a map). This is because of their intrinsic historical significance individually and as parts of complete streets.

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